Fungal Biol 121(12) , 1011-1024 (Dec 1 2017)
We describe the complete mating-type (MAT) locus for Phialocephala scopiformis Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures (DAOMC) 229536 – a basal lineage within Vibrisseaceae. This strain is of interest due to its ability to produce the important antiinsectan rugulosin. We also provide some of the first insights into the genome structure and gene inventory of nonclavicipitalean endophytes. Sequence was obtained through shotgun sequencing of the entire P. scopiformis genome, and the MAT locus was then determined by comparing this genomic sequence to known MAT loci within the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex. We also tested the relative levels of sequence conservation for MAT genes within Vibrisseaceae (n = 10), as well as within the Helotiales (n = 27). Our results: (1) show a homothallic gene arrangement for P. scopiformis [MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1, and MAT1-1-3 genes are present], (2) increase the genomic survey of homothallism within Vibrisseaceae, (3) confirm that P. scopiformis contains a unique S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase (SAM-Mtase) gene proximal to its MAT locus, while also lacking a cytoskeleton assembly control protein (sla2) gene, and (4) indicate that MAT1-1-1 is the more useful molecular marker amongst the MAT genes for phylogenetic reconstructions aimed at tracking evolutionary shifts in reproductive strategy and/or MAT loci gene composition within the Helotiales.