The recently discovered APOA5 gene has been shown in humans and mice to be important in determining plasma triglyceride levels, a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. apoAV represents the first described apolipoprotein where overexpression lowers triglyceride levels. Since fibrates represent a commonly used therapy for lowering plasma triglycerides in humans, we investigated their ability to modulate APOA5 gene expression and consequently influence plasma triglyceride levels. Human primary hepatocytes treated with Wy 14,643 or fenofibrate displayed a strong induction of APOA5 mRNA. Deletion and mutagenesis analyses of the proximal APOA5 promoter firmly demonstrate the presence of a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element. These findings demonstrate that APOA5 is a highly responsive peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target gene and support its role as a major mediator for how fibrates reduce plasma triglycerides in humans.