The Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is a diploid model system for both frog genetics and developmental biology, complementary to the paleotetraploid X. laevis. Here we report a chromosome-scale assembly of the X. tropicalis genome, improving the previously published draft genome assembly through the use of new assembly algorithms, additional sequence data, and the addition of a dense genetic map. The improved genome enables the mapping of specific traits (e.g., the sex locus or Mendelian mutants) and the characterization of chromosome-scale synteny with other tetrapods. We also report an improved annotation of the genome that integrates deep transcriptome sequence from diverse tissues and stages. The exon-intron structures of these genes are highly conserved relative to both X. laevis and human, as are chromosomal linkages (“synteny”) and local gene order. A network analysis of developmental gene expression will aid future studies.