Environ Microbiol Rep 11(2) , 262-270 (Apr 2019)
Ectosymbiotic Nanoarchaeota live on the surface of diverse archaeal hosts. Despite being broadly distributed in global geothermal systems, only three Nanoarchaeota have been successfully co-cultivated with their hosts, and until now no nanoarchaeotal cultures or genomes have been described from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We recovered three nanoarchaeotal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (M10-121), Guaymas Basin (Gua-46) and the Mid-Cayman Rise (MC-1). Based on average amino acid identity analysis, M10-121 is a novel species in the candidate genus Nanoclepta, while the other two MAGs represent novel genera in the Nanoarchaeota. Like previously sequenced Nanoarchaeota, each MAG encodes at least one split protein-coding gene. The MAGs also contain a mosaic of key nanoarchaeotal features, including CRISPR repeat regions and marker genes for gluconeogenesis and archaeal flagella. MC-1 also encodes the pentose bisphosphate pathway, which may allow the nanoarchaeote to bypass several steps in glycolysis and produce ATP.