The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the world’s largest living rodent. Native to South America, this hindgut fermenter is herbivorous and coprophagous and uses its enlarged cecum to digest dietary plant material. The microbiota of specialized hindgut fermenters has remained largely unexplored. The aim of this work was to describe the composition of the bacterial community in the fermenting cecum of wild capybaras. The analysis of bacterial communities in the capybara cecum is a first step towards the functional characterization of microbial fermentation in this model of hindgut fermentation. We sampled cecal contents from five wild adult capybaras (three males and two females) in the Venezuelan plains. DNA from cecal contents was extracted, the 16S rDNA was amplified, and the amplicons were hybridized onto a DNA microarray (G2 PhyloChip). We found 933 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 182 families in 21 bacterial phyla in the capybara cecum. The core bacterial microbiota (present in at least four animals) was represented by 575 OTUs. About 86% of the cecal bacterial OTUs belong to only five phyla, namely, Firmicutes (322 OTUs), Proteobacteria (301 OTUs), Bacteroidetes (76 OTUs), Actinobacteria (69 OTUs), and Sphirochaetes (37 OTUs). The capybara harbors a diverse bacterial community that includes lineages involved in fiber degradation and nitrogen fixation in other herbivorous animals.