Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic time-series data covering a 52-day period in the fall of 2016 provide an inventory of bacterial and archaeal community genes, transcripts, and taxonomy during an intense dinoflagellate bloom in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The dataset comprises 84 metagenomes (0.8 terabases), 82 metatranscriptomes (1.1 terabases), and 88 16S rRNA amplicon libraries from samples collected on 41 dates. The dataset also includes 88 18S rRNA amplicon libraries, characterizing the taxonomy of the eukaryotic community during the bloom. Accompanying the sequence data are chemical and biological measurements associated with each sample. These datasets will facilitate studies of the structure and function of marine bacterial communities during episodic phytoplankton blooms.