Metabolism is at the heart of many biotechnologies from biofuels to medical diagnostics. Metabolomic methods that provide glimpses into cellular metabolism have rapidly developed into a critical component of the biotechnological development process. Most metabolomics methods have focused on what is happening inside the cell. Equally important are the biochemical transformations of the cell, and their effect on other cells and their environment; the exometabolome. Exometabolomics is therefore gaining popularity as a robust approach for obtaining rich phenotypic data, and being used in bioprocessing and biofuel development. Mass spectrometry imaging approaches, including several nanotechnologies, provide complimentary information by localizing metabolic processes within complex biological matrices. Together, the two technologies can provide new insights into the metabolism and interactions of cells.