The ever-increasing metagenomic data necessitate appropriate cataloguing in a way that facilitates the comparison and better contextualization of the underlying investigations. To this extent, information associated with the sequencing data as well as the original sample and the environment where it was obtained from is crucial. To date, there are not any publicly available repositories able to capture environmental metadata pertaining to hydrocarbon-rich environments. As such, contextualization and comparative analysis among sequencing datasets derived from these environments is to a certain degree hindered or cannot be fully evaluated. The metagenomics data management system for hydrocarbon resources (MetaHCRs) enables the capturing of marker gene and whole metagenome sequencing data as well as over 300 contextual attributes associated with samples, organisms, environments and geological properties, among others. Moreover, MetaHCR implements the Minimum Information about any Sequence–hydrocarbon resource specification from the Genomic Standards Consortium; it integrates a user-friendly web interface and relational database model, and it enables the generation of complex custom search. MetaHCR has been tested with 36 publicly available metagenomic studies, and its modular architecture can be easily customized for other types of environmental and metagenomics studies.