Fruiting body development (FBD) of mushroom-forming fungi has attracted tremendous interest. However, the genetic and molecular basis of FBD is poorly known. Here, using Lentinula edodes (shiitake) as a model, we deciphered the genetic architecture underlying fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs) by combined genomic, genetic and phenotypic data. Using RNA-Seq of fruiting bodies from 110 dikaryons in a bi-parental mapping population, we constructed an ultra-high-density genetic map of L. edodes (Lemap2.0) with a total length of 810.14 cM, which covered 81.7% of the shiitake genome. A total of 94 scaffolds of the shiitake genome were aligned to Lemap2.0 and re-anchored into nine pseudo-chromosomes. Then via quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, we disclosed an outline of the genetic architecture of FBD in shiitake. Twenty-nine QTLs and three main genomic regions associated with FBD of shiitake were identified. Using meta-QTL analysis, seven pleiotropic QTLs for multiple traits were detected, which contributed to the correlations of FBRTs. In the mapped QTLs, the expression of 246 genes were found to significantly correlate with the phenotypic traits. Thirty-three of them were involved in FBD and could represent candidate genes controlling the shape and size of fruiting bodies. Collectively, our findings have advanced our understanding of the genetic regulation of FBD in shiitake and mushroom-forming fungi at large.