Strain AP-Melu-1000-B4 was isolated from a lake located in the mountains of the Mediterranean island of Corsica (France). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic traits were investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing referred the strain to the cryptic species complex PnecC within the genus Polynucleobacter. The strain encoded genes for biosynthesis of proteorhodopsin and retinal. When pelleted by centrifugation the strain showed an intense rose colouring. Major fatty acids were C16 : 1omega7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1omega7c and summed feature 2 (C16 : 1 isoI and C14 : 0-3OH). The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene contained an indel which was not present in any previously described Polynucleobacter species. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 1.89 Mbp and a G+C content of 46.6 mol%. In order to resolve the phylogenetic position of the new strain within subcluster PnecC, its phylogeny was reconstructed from sequences of 319 shared genes. To represent all currently described Polynucleobacter species by whole genome sequences, three type strains were additionally sequenced. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AP-Melu-100-B4 occupied a basal position compared with previously described PnecC strains. Pairwise determined whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values suggested that strain AP-Melu-1000-B4 represents a new species, for which we propose the name Polynucleobacter meluiroseus sp. nov. with the type strain AP-Melu-1000-B4(T) (=DSM 103591(T)=CIP 111329(T)).