This study examined diel shifts in metabolic functions of Microcystis spp. during a 48-h Lagrangian survey of a toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in western Lake Erie in the aftermath of the 2014 Toledo Water Crisis. Transcripts mapped to the genomes of recently sequenced lower Great Lakes Microcystis isolates showed distinct patterns of gene expression between samples collected across day (10:00 h, 16:00 h) and night (22:00 h, 04:00 h). Daytime transcripts were enriched in functions related to Photosystem II (e.g., psbA), nitrogen and phosphate acquisition, cell division (ftsHZ), heat shock response (dnaK, groEL), and uptake of inorganic carbon (rbc, bicA). Genes transcribed during nighttime included those involved in phycobilisome protein synthesis and Photosystem I core subunits. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) showed a tightly clustered group of nighttime expressed genes, whereas daytime transcripts were separated from each other over the 48-h duration. Lack of uniform clustering within the daytime transcripts suggested that the partitioning of gene expression in Microcystis is dependent on both circadian regulation and physicochemical changes within the environment.