Fungi interact with their environment by secreting proteins to obtain nutrients, elicit responses and modify their surroundings. Because the set of proteins secreted by a fungus is related to its lifestyle, it should be possible to use it as a tool to predict fungal lifestyle. To test this hypothesis, we bioinformatically identified 538 and 554 secretable proteins in the monokaryotic strains PC9 and PC15 of the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Functional annotation revealed unknown functions (37.2%), glycosyl hydrolases (26.5%) and redox enzymes (11.5%) as the main groups in the two strains. When these results were combined with RNA-seq analyses, we found that the relative importance of each group was different in different strains and culture conditions and the relevance of the unknown function proteins was enhanced. Only a few genes were actively expressed in a given culture condition in expanded multigene families, suggesting that family expansion could increase adaptive opportunities rather than activity under a specific culture condition. Finally, we used the set of P. ostreatus secreted proteins as a query to search their counterparts in other fungal genomes and found that the secretome profiles cluster the tested basidiomycetes into lifestyle rather than phylogenetic groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.