Root exudation is one of the primary processes that mediate interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil matrix, yet the mechanisms by which exudation alters microbial metabolism in soils have been challenging to unravel. Here, utilizing distinct sorghum genotypes, we characterized the chemical heterogeneity between root exudates and the effects of that variability on soil microbial membership and metabolism. Distinct exudate chemical profiles were quantified and used to formulate synthetic root exudate treatments: a high-organic-acid treatment (HOT) and a high-sugar treatment (HST). To parse the response of the soil microbiome to different exudate regimens, laboratory soil reactors were amended with these root exudate treatments as well as a nonexudate control. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene illustrated distinct microbial diversity patterns and membership in response to HST, HOT, or control amendments. Exometabolite changes reflected these microbial community changes, and we observed enrichment of organic and amino acids, as well as possible phytohormones in the HST relative to the HOT and control. Linking the metabolic capacity of metagenome-assembled genomes in the HST to the exometabolite patterns, we identified microorganisms that could produce these phytohormones. Our findings emphasize the tractability of high-resolution multiomics tools to investigate soil microbiomes, opening the possibility of manipulating native microbial communities to improve specific soil microbial functions and enhance crop production. IMPORTANCE Decrypting the chemical interactions between plant roots and the soil microbiome is a gateway for future manipulation and management of the rhizosphere, a soil compartment critical to promoting plant fitness and yields. Our experimental results demonstrate how soil microbial community and genomic diversity is influenced by root exudates of differing chemical compositions and how changes in this microbiome result in altered production of plant-relevant metabolites. Together, these findings demonstrate the tractability of high-resolution multiomics tools to investigate soil microbiomes and provide new information on plant-soil environments useful for the development of efficient and precise microbiota management strategies in agricultural systems.