Frontiers in Microbiology 12 , 719703 ( 2021)
Since the discovery of Mimivirus, viruses with large genomes encoding components of the translation machinery and other cellular processes have been described as belonging to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Recently, genome-resolved metagenomics led to the discovery of more than 40 viruses that have been grouped together in a proposed viral subfamily named Klosneuvirinae. Members of this group had genomes of up to 2.4Mb in size and featured an expanded array of translation system genes. Yet, despite the large diversity of the Klosneuvirinae in metagenomic data, there are currently only two isolates available. Here, we report the isolation of a novel giant virus known as Fadolivirus from an Algerian sewage site and provide morphological data throughout its replication cycle in amoeba and a detailed genomic characterization. The Fadolivirus genome, which is more than 1.5Mb in size, encodes 1,452 predicted proteins and phylogenetic analyses place this viral isolate as a near relative of the metagenome assembled Klosneuvirus and Indivirus. The genome encodes for 66 tRNAs, 23 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and a wide range of transcription factors, surpassing Klosneuvirus and other giant viruses. The Fadolivirus genome also encodes putative vacuolar-type proton pumps with the domains D and A, potentially constituting a virus-derived system for energy generation. The successful isolation of Fadolivirus will enable future hypothesis-driven experimental studies providing deeper insights into the biology of the Klosneuvirinae.