Acid sulfate soils release metal laden, acidic waters that affect the environment, buildings, and human health. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicons, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes all demonstrated distinct microbial communities and activities in the unoxidized potential acid sulfate soil, the overlying transition zone, and uppermost oxidized actual acid sulfate soil. Assembled genomes and mRNA transcripts also suggested abundant oxidized acid sulfate soil populations that aligned within the Gammaproteobacteria and Terracidiphilus. In contrast, potentially acid tolerant or moderately acidophilic iron oxidizing Gallionella and sulfur metabolizing Sulfuricella dominated the transition zone during catalysis of metal sulfide oxidation to form acid sulfate soil. Finally, anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to nitrate, sulfate, and ferric reduction were suggested to occur in the reduced parent sediments. In conclusion, despite comparable metal sulfide dissolution processes e.g., biomining, Gallionella and Sulfuricella dominated the community and activities during conversion of potential to actual acid sulfate soils.